Natural History Photographs

Ecological interactions among fungi

Commensalism is a form of symbiosis in which one partner benefits from the other, while the other is neither positively nor negatively affected. We may call the unaffected species the host, and the benefitting species the commensal. In the photos below, the yellow species, Candelariella vitellina, is the host, while the black apothecia are from the commensal, Huea vitellinaria.

Candelariella vitellina & Huea vitellinaria
Möckelmossen (Öland), Sweden; 12 June 2016.