Natural History Photographs

Ecological interactions among fungi

Parasitism is a form of symbiosis in which one partner benefits from the other, while the other is negatively affected. We call the negatively affected organism the host, and the benefitting species the parasite. Below are a few examples from fungi that parasitize on lichens; such fungi are called lichenicolous fungi.

Allantoparmelia alpicola
Veggli (Buskerud), Norway; 1 August 2016. Unknown parasite on Allantoparmelia alpicola.

Arthonia varians & Lecanora rupicola
Bjärby (Öland), Sweden; 14 June 2014.
Arthonia varians parasitizes the apothecia of the host, Lecanora rupicola.

Arthrorhaphis grisea & Baeomyces rufus
Aekingerzand, the Netherlands; 30 November 2013.
Baeomyces rufus is the host, Arthrorhaphis grisea the parasite.

Athallia nesodes
Bjärby (Öland), Sweden; 14 June 2014.
Athallia nesodes parasitically growing on an unidentified species.

Diploschistes muscorum & Cladonia spec.
Baarn, the Netherlands; 25 January 2015.

Diploschistes muscorum growing parasitacally on Cladonia spec. After
the host dies, the parasite functions as an independently growing lichen.

Sagediopsis spec. &
Pertusaria hemispherica
Rälla (Öland), Sweden; 15 June 2016.
Sagediopsis spec. growing parasitacally on Pertusaria hemispherica.

Pseudephebe pubescens
Veggli (Buskerud), Norway; 3 August 2016.
Unknown parasite on Pseudephebe pubescens.

Rimularia insularis & Lecanora rupicola
Möckelmossen (Öland), Sweden; 12 June 2016.
Rimularia insularis growing parasitacally on Lecanora rupicola.